Serpa village was occupied successively by Romans and Arabs cores definitely being conquered by Christian troops in the first quarter of the thirteenth century. In Roman times, it was a small cluster of secondary importance, signing up in the area of Pax Julia civitas. It was conquered from the Moors in 1166, making to be dominated by Muslims between 171 and 1184.
The Muslim core, called the Castelo Velho “Old Castle”, corresponds to the oldest district of the metropolis, distinguished by irregular flatness of the streets. It was here that the Arabs built the fortress and its mosque, whose foundations would be located where the Christian power built the Church of Santa Maria.
With the final conquest of low-Alentejo town in 1230, won by Templar troops, the urban fabric of Serpa get to know a gradual development. Finally, it regained in 1242 in the reign of D. Sancho II and settled in 1295 by King Dinis, during which it is designed the first charter, restoring the castle and builds a large curtain walls, who took part the walled structure of the Islamic citadel.
This rectangular enclosure corresponding to the walls, was gradually occupied by medieval houses. However, the fourteenth century has brought a slowdown in growth, and only in the late fifteenth century and during the sixteenth century, the growing population center, expanding out of the walls, with the creation of the parish of Salvador. This period is again renovated the castle.
The enclosure of medieval walls, although currently severely damaged can still be rebuilt.